Jurassic Park (movie)
Director:- Steven Spielberg
Based on:- Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton
- Sam Neill
- Laura Dern
- Jeff Goldblum
- Richard Attenborough
- Bob Peck
- Martin Ferrero
- B. D. Wong
- Samuel L. Jackson
- Wayne Knight
- Joseph Mazzello
- Ariana Richards
Music by:- John Williams
Edited by:- Michael Kahn
- June 9, 1993 (Uptown Theater)
- June 11, 1993 (United States)
Country:- United States
Budget:- $63 Million
Box office:- $1.029 Billion
Industrialist John Hammond and his bioengineering company, InGen, have created a theme park called Jurassic Park on Isla Nublar, a Costa Rican island, populated with cloned dinosaurs. After one of the dinosaur handlers is killed by a Velociraptor, the park’s investors, represented by lawyer Donald Gennaro, say that experts must visit the park and certify it as safe. Gennaro invites mathematician and chaos theorist Ian Malcolm, while Hammond invites paleontologist Dr. Alan Grant and paleobotanist Dr. Ellie Sattler. Upon arrival, the group is stunned to see a live Brachiosaurus.
At the park’s visitor center, the group learns that the cloning was accomplished by extracting dinosaur DNA from mosquitoes that had been preserved in amber. DNA from frogs was used to fill in gaps in the dinosaur genomes. To prevent breeding, all the dinosaurs were made female. Malcolm scoffs at the idea of such controlled breeding, declaring it impossible. The crew witness the birth of a baby raptor and visit the raptor enclosure. During a luncheon, the group debates the ethics of cloning and the creation of the park, with Dr. Malcolm giving a harsh warning about the implications of genetic engineering as a whole.
The group is then joined by Hammond’s grandchildren, Lex and Tim Murphy, for a tour of the park, while Hammond oversees the trip from the park’s control room. The tour does not go as planned, with most of the dinosaurs failing to appear and the encounter of a sick Triceratops. The tour is cut short as a tropical storm approaches Isla Nublar. Most of the park employees depart on a boat for the mainland and the visitors return to their electric tour vehicles, except Ellie, who stays with the park’s veterinarian to study the Triceratops.
Jurassic Park’s computer programmer, Dennis Nedry, has been bribed by Dodgson, a man involved with a corporate rival, to steal dinosaur embryos. Nedry deactivates the park’s security system to gain access to the embryo storage room. Nedry stores the embryos inside a canister disguised as Barbasol shaving cream, supplied by Dodgson. Because of Nedry, the power goes out and the tour vehicles become stuck. Most of the park’s electric fences are deactivated as well, allowing the Tyrannosaurus to escape and attack the tour group. Grant, Lex, and Tim escape, while the Tyrannosaurus injures Malcolm and devours Gennaro. On his way to deliver the embryos to the island’s docks, Nedry becomes lost in the rain, crashes his Jeep Wrangler, and is killed by a Dilophosaurus.
Sattler assists the park’s game warden, Robert Muldoon, in a search for survivors, but they only find an injured Malcolm, before the Tyrannosaurus returns. Grant, Tim, and Lex spend the night in a tree and befriend a Brachiosaurus. Later, they discover the broken shells of dinosaur eggs. Grant concludes that the dinosaurs have been breeding, which occurred because of their frog DNA—West African bullfrogs can change their sex in a single-sex environment, allowing the dinosaurs to do so as well, proving Malcolm right.
Unable to decipher Nedry’s code to reactivate the security system, Hammond and the park’s chief engineer Ray Arnold opt to reboot the entire park’s system. The group shuts down the park’s grid and retreats to an emergency bunker, while Arnold heads to a maintenance shed to complete the rebooting process. When Arnold fails to return, Sattler and Muldoon head to the shed. They discover the shutdown has deactivated the remaining fences and released the raptors. Muldoon distracts the raptors, while Sattler goes to turn the power back on, before being attacked by a raptor and discovering Arnold’s severed arm. Meanwhile, Muldoon is caught off-guard and killed by the other two raptors.
Grant, Tim and Lex finally reach the visitor center. Grant heads out to look for Sattler, leaving Tim & Lex inside. Tim and Lex are pursued by the raptors in an industrial kitchen, but they escape and join Grant and Sattler. Lex restores full power from the control room, allowing the group to call Hammond, who in turn calls for help. The group is cornered by the raptors, but they are able to escape when the Tyrannosaurus suddenly appears and kills the raptors. Hammond arrives in a Jeep with Malcolm, and the entire group boards a helicopter to leave the island.
- Sam Neill as Dr. Alan Grant
- Laura Dern as Dr. Ellie Sattler
- Jeff Goldblum as Dr. Ian Malcolm
- Richard Attenborough as John Hammond
- Joseph Mazzello as Timothy “Tim” Murphy
- Ariana Richards as Alexis “Lex” Murphy
- Bob Peck as Robert Muldoon
- Martin Ferrero as Donald Gennaro
- Wayne Knight as Dennis Nedry
- Samuel L. Jackson as Ray Arnold
- Cameron Thor as Dr. Lewis Dodgson
- Miguel Sandoval as Juanito Rostagno
- Jerry Molen as Dr. Harding
- B. D. Wong as Dr. Henry Wu
Despite the title of the film referencing the Jurassic period, Brachiosaurus and Dilophosaurus are the only dinosaurs featured that actually lived during that time; the other species featured did not exist until the Cretaceous period. This is acknowledged in the film during a scene where Dr. Grant describes the ferocity of the Velociraptor to a young boy, saying “Try to imagine yourself in the Cretaceous period…”
- Tyrannosaurus was acknowledged by Spielberg as “the star of the movie”, even leading him to rewrite the ending to feature the T. rex for fear of disappointing the audience. Winston’s animatronic T. rex stood 20 feet (6.1 m), weighed 17,500 pounds (7,900 kg), and was 40 feet (12 m) long. Jack Horner called it “the closest I’ve ever been to a live dinosaur”. While the consulting paleontologists did not have a consensus on the dinosaur’s movement, particularly regarding its running capabilities, animator Steve Williams decided to “throw physics out the window and create a T. rex that moved at sixty miles per hour even though its hollow bones would have busted if it ran that fast”. The major reason was the T. rex chasing a Jeep, a scene that took two months to finish. The dinosaur is depicted with a vision system based on movement, though later studies indicated the T. rexhad binocular vision comparable to a bird of prey. Its roar is a baby elephant mixed with a tiger and an alligator, and its breath is a whale‘s blow. A dog attacking a rope toy was used for the sounds of the T. rex tearing a Gallimimus apart, while cut sequoias crashing to the ground became the sound of the dinosaur’s footsteps.
- Velociraptor plays a major role in the film. The creature’s depiction is not based on the actual dinosaur genus in question, which itself was significantly smaller. Shortly before Jurassic Park’s theatre release, the similar Utahraptor was discovered, though was proven bigger in appearance than the film’s raptors; this prompted Stan Winston to joke, “We made it, then they discovered it.” For the attack on character Robert Muldoon and some parts of the kitchen scene, the raptors were played by men in suits. Dolphin screams, walruses bellowing, geese hissing, an African crane‘s mating call, tortoises mating, and human rasps were mixed to formulate various raptor sounds. Following discoveries made after the film’s release, most paleontologists theorize that dromaeosaurs like Velociraptor and Deinonychus were fully covered with feathers like modern birds. This feature is only included in Jurassic Park III for the male raptors, who are shown with a row of small quills on their heads.
- Dilophosaurus was also very different from its real-life counterpart, made significantly smaller to make sure audiences did not confuse it with the raptors. Its neck frill and its ability to spit venom are fictitious. Its vocal sounds were made by combining a swan, a hawk, a howler monkey, and a rattlesnake. The animatronic model, nicknamed “Spitter” by Stan Winston’s team, was animated by the puppeteers sitting on a trench in the set floor, and used a paintball mechanism to spit the mixture of methacyl and K-Y Jelly that served as venom.
- Brachiosaurus is the first dinosaur seen by the park’s visitors. It is inaccurately depicted as chewing its food, and standing up on its hind legs to browse among the high tree branches. According to artist Andy Schoneberg, the chewing was done to make the animal seem docile, in a way it resembled a cow chewing its cud. The dinosaur’s head and upper neck was the largest puppet without hydraulics built for the film. Despite scientific evidence of their having limited vocal capabilities, sound designer Gary Rydstrom decided to represent them with whale songs and donkey calls to give them a melodic sense of wonder. Penguins were also recorded to be used in the noises of the dinosaurs.
- Triceratops has an extended cameo, being sick with an unidentified disease. Its appearance was a particular logistical nightmare for Stan Winston when Spielberg asked to shoot the animatronic of the sick creature earlier than expected. The model, operated by eight puppeteers in the Kaua’i set, wound up being the first dinosaur filmed during production. Winston also created a baby Triceratops for Ariana Richards to ride on, a scene cut from the film for pacing reasons. Gary Rydstrom combined the sound of himself breathing into a cardboard tube with the cows near his workplace at Skywalker Ranch to create the Triceratops vocals.
- Gallimimus are featured in a stampede scene where one of them is devoured by the Tyrannosaurus. The Gallimimus was the first dinosaur to receive a digital version, being featured in two ILM tests, first as a herd of skeletons and then fully skinned while pursued by the T. rex. Its design was based on ostriches, and to emphasize the birdlike qualities, the animation focused mostly on the herd rather than individual animals. As reference for the dinosaurs’ run, the animators were filmed running at the ILM parking lot, with plastic pipes standing in as the tree that the Gallimimus jump over. The footage even inspired to incorporate an animal falling in its leap as one of the artists crashed making the jump. Horse squeals became the Gallimimus sounds.
- Parasaurolophus appear in the background during the first encounter with the Brachiosaurus.
- Alamosaurus appears as a skeleton in the Jurassic Park visitor center.
Composer John Williams began scoring the film at the end of February, and it was recorded a month later. John Neufeld and Alexander Courage provided the score’s orchestrations. Similar to another Spielberg film he scored, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Williams felt he needed to write “pieces that would convey a sense of ‘awe’ and fascination” given it dealt with the “overwhelming happiness and excitement” that would emerge from seeing live dinosaurs. In turn more suspenseful scenes such as the Tyrannosaurus attack earned frightening themes. The first soundtrack album was released on May 25, 1993. For the 20th anniversary of the release of the film, a new soundtrack was issued for digital download on April 9, 2013 including four bonus tracks personally selected by Williams.
Jurassic Park became the highest-grossing film released worldwide up to that time. Following $3.1 million from midnight screenings on June 10, the film earned $47 million in its first weekend, with the $50.1 million total breaking the opening weekend record set by Batman Returns the year before. By the end of its first week, Jurassic Park had grossed $81.7 million, and stayed at number one for three weeks. It eventually grossed $357 million in the U.S. and Canada. Box Office Mojo estimates that the film sold over 86.2 million tickets in the US in its initial theatrical run. The film also did very well in international markets, breaking opening records in the United Kingdom, Japan, India, South Korea, Mexico, and Taiwan, ultimately earning $914 million worldwide, with Spielberg reportedly making over $250 million from the film. It surpassed Spielberg’s own E.T. the Extraterrestrial as the highest-grossing film ever worldwide, and became second to E.T. in North America earnings. Jurassic Park‘s record was only surpassed in 1998 by Titanic, the first film to gross over $1 billion.
The 3D re-release of Jurassic Park opened at fourth place in North America, with $18.6 million from 2,771 locations. IMAX showings accounted for over $6 million, with the 32 percent being the highest IMAX share ever for a nationwide release. The international release had its most successful weekend in the last week of August, when it managed to climb to the top of the overseas box office with a $28.8 million debut in China. The reissue earned $45,385,935 in North America and $44,500,000 internationally as of August 2013, leading to a lifetime gross of $402,453,882 in North America and $628,723,171 overseas, totaling up to a worldwide gross of $1,029,939,903, making Jurassic Park the 17th film to surpass the $1 billion mark. It was the first and only Universal Pictures film to surpass the $1 billion mark until 2015, when the studio got three such films, Furious 7, Minions, and the fourth installment of the Jurassic Park franchise, Jurassic World. It currently ranks as the 24th highest-grossing film of all time in North America (unadjusted for inflation) and 22nd highest-grossing film worldwide. It is the fourth highest-grossing film released by Universal, and the highest-grossing film directed by Spielberg.