Sholay (1975 Movies)
Director:- Ramesh Sippy
Producer:- G. P. Sippy
Screenplay by:- Salim-Javed
Music by:- R. D. Burman
Edited by:- M. S. Shinde
- 15 August 1975
Budget:- ₹30 Million
Box office:- est.₹150 Million
In the small village of Ramgarh, the retired policeman Thakur Baldev Singh (Sanjeev Kumar) summons a pair of small-time thieves that he had once arrested. Thakur feels that the duo—Veeru (Dharmendra) and Jai (Amitabh Bachchan)—would be ideal to help him capture Gabbar Singh (Amjad Khan), a dacoit wanted by the authorities for a ₹ 50,000 reward. Thakur tells them to surrender Gabbar to him, alive, for an additional ₹ 20,000 reward.
The two thieves thwart the dacoits sent by Gabbar to extort the villagers. Soon afterwards, Gabbar and his goons attack Ramgarh during the festival of Holi. In a tough battle, Veeru and Jai are cornered. Thakur, although he has a gun within his reach, does not help them. Veeru and Jai fight back and the bandits flee. The two are, however, upset at Thakur’s inaction, and consider leaving the village. Thakur explains that Gabbar had killed nearly all of his family members, and cut off both his arms a few years earlier, which is why he could not use the gun. He had concealed the dismemberment by always wearing a shawl.
Living in Ramgarh, the jovial Veeru and cynical Jai find themselves growing fond of the villagers. Veeru is attracted to Basanti (Hema Malini), a feisty, talkative young woman who makes her living by driving a horse-cart. Jai is drawn to Radha (Jaya Bhaduri), Thakur’s reclusive, widowed daughter-in-law, who subtly returns his affections.
Skirmishes between Gabbar’s gang and Jai-Veeru finally result in the capture of Veeru and Basanti by the dacoits. Jai attacks the gang, and the three are able to flee Gabbar’s hideout with dacoits in pursuit. Fighting from behind a rock, Jai and Veeru nearly run out of ammunition. Veeru, unaware that Jai was wounded in the gunfight, is forced to leave for more ammunition. Meanwhile, Jai, who is continuing the gunfight singlehandedly, decides to sacrifice himself by using his last bullet to ignite dynamite sticks on a bridge from close range.
Veeru returns, and Jai dies in his arms. Enraged, Veeru attacks Gabbar’s den and catches the dacoit. Veeru nearly beats Gabbar to death when Thakur appears and reminds Veeru of the promise to hand over Gabbar alive. Thakur uses his spike-soled shoes to severely injure Gabbar and destroy his hands. The police then arrive and arrest Gabbar. After Jai’s funeral, Veeru leaves Ramgarh and finds Basanti waiting for him on the train. Radha is left alone again.
- Dharmendra as Veeru
- Sanjeev Kumar as Thakur Baldev Singh, usually addressed as “Thakur“
- Hema Malini as Basanti
- Amitabh Bachchan as Jai (Jaidev)
- Jaya Bhaduri as Radha, Thakur’s daughter-in-law
- Amjad Khan as Gabbar Singh
- Satyen Kappu as Ramlaal, Thakur’s servant
- A. K. Hangal as Rahim Chacha, the imam in the village
- Sachin as Ahmed, son of the imam
- Jagdeep as Soorma Bhopali, a comical wood trader
- Leela Mishra as Mausi, Basanti’s maternal aunt
- Asrani as the Jailor, a comical character modelled after Charlie Chaplin in The Great Dictator (1940)
- Keshto Mukherjee as Hariram, prison barber and Jailor’s side-kick
- Mac Mohan as Sambha, Gabbar Singh’s sidekick
- Viju Khote as Kaalia, another of Gabbar’s men whom he kills in a game of Russian roulette
- Iftekhar as Inspector Khurana, Radha’s Father
- Helen in a special appearance in song “Mehbooba Mehbooba”
- Jalal Agha in a special appearance in song “Mehbooba Mehbooba”
Much of Sholay was shot in the rocky terrain of Ramanagara, a town near Bangalore, Karnataka. The filmmakers had to build a road from the Bangalore highway to Ramanagara for convenient access to the sets. Art director Ram Yedekar had an entire township built on the site. A prison set was constructed near Rajkamal Studio in Mumbai, also outdoors, to match the natural lighting of the on-location sets. One part of Ramanagara was for a time called “Sippy Nagar” as a tribute to the director of the film. As of 2010, a visit to the “Sholay rocks” (where much the film was shot) was still being offered to tourists travelling through Ramanagara.
Filming began on location on 3 October 1973, with a scene featuring Bachchan and Bhaduri. The film had a lavish production for its time (with frequent banquets and parties for the cast), took two and a half years to make, and went over budget. One reason for its high cost was that Sippy re-filmed scenes many times to get his desired effect. “Yeh Dosti”, a 5-minute song sequence, took 21 days to shoot, two short scenes in which Radha lights lamps took 20 days to film because of lighting problems, and the shooting of the scene in which Gabbar kills the imam’s son lasted 19 days. The train robbery sequence, shot on the Mumbai–Pune railway route near Panvel, took more than 7 weeks to complete.
Sholay was the first Indian film to have a stereophonic soundtrack and to use the 70 mm widescreen format. However, since actual 70 mm cameras were expensive at the time, the film was shot on traditional 35 mm film and the 4:3 picture was subsequently converted to a 2.2:1 frame. Regarding the process, Sippy said, “A 70mm [sic] format takes the awe of the big screen and magnifies it even more to make the picture even bigger, but since I also wanted a spread of sound we used six-track stereophonic sound and combined it with the big screen. It was definitely a differentiator.” The use of 70 mm was emphasised by film posters on which the name of the film was stylised to match the CinemaScope logo. Film posters also sought to differentiate the film from those which had come before; one of them added the tagline: “The greatest star cast ever assembled – the greatest story ever told”.
The director’s original cut of Sholay has a different ending in which Thakur kills Gabbar, along with some additional violent scenes. Gabbar’s death scene, and the scene in which the imam’s son is killed, were cut from the film by India’s Censor Board, as was the scene in which Thakur’s family is massacred. The Censor Board was concerned about the violence, and that viewers may be influenced to violate the law by punishing people severely. Although Sippy fought to keep the scenes, eventually he had to re-shoot the ending of the film, and as directed by the Censor Board, have the police arrive just before Thakur can kill Gabbar. The censored theatrical version was the only one seen by audiences for fifteen years. The original, unedited cut of the film finally came out in a British release on VHS in 1990. Since then, Eros International has released two versions on DVD. The director’s cut of the film preserves the original full frame and is 204 minutes in length; the censored widescreen version is 198 minutes long.
R. D. Burman composed the film’s music, and the lyrics were written by Anand Bakshi. The songs used in the film, and released on the original soundtrack are listed below. Following that is a list of unused tracks and dialogues which were released later on an updated soundtrack.
The song “Mehbooba Mehbooba” was sung by its composer, R. D. Burman, who received his sole Filmfare Award nomination for playback singing for his effort. The song, which is often featured on Bollywood hit song compilations, is based on “Say You Love Me” by Greek singer Demis Roussos. Describing the inspiration behind “Mehbooba Mehbooba”, Ramesh Sippy narrated having heard “Say You Love Me” at a concert in London, and his wife asked him to incorporate the song into Sholay‘s music track. Burman used empty bottles as a part of the music and composed an Indianised version of the song.
“Mehbooba Mehbooba” has been extensively anthologised, remixed, and recreated. A version was created in 2005 by the Kronos Quartet for their Grammy-nominated album You’ve Stolen My Heart, featuring Asha Bhosle. It was also remixed and sung by Himesh Reshammiya, along with Bhosle, in his debut acting film Aap Kaa Surroor (2007). “Yeh Dosti” has been called the ultimate friendship anthem. It was remixed and sung by Shankar Mahadevan and Udit Narayan for the 2010 Malayalam film Four Friends, and also in 2010 it was used to symbolise India’s friendship with the United States during a visit from President Barack Obama.
Several songs from the soundtrack were included in the annual Binaca Geetmala list of top filmi songs. “Mehbooba Mehooba” was listed at No. 24 on the 1975 list, and at No. 6 on the 1976 list. “Koi Haseena” was listed at No. 30 in 1975, and No. 20 in 1976. “Yeh Dosti” was listed at No. 9 in 1976. Despite the soundtrack’s success, at the time, the songs from Sholay attracted less attention than the film’s dialogue—a rarity for Bollywood. The producers were thus prompted to release records with only dialogue. Taken together, the album sales totalled an unprecedented 500,000 units, and became one of the top selling Bollywood soundtracks of the 1970s.
Music critic Oli Marlow reviewed the soundtrack in 2013, calling it a unique fusion of religious, folk, and classical music, with influences from around the world. He also commented on the sound design of the film, calling it psychedelic, and saying that there was “a lot of incredible incidental music” in the film that was not included in the soundtrack releases. In a 1999 paper submitted to London’s Symposium on Sound in Cinema, film critic Shoma A. Chatterji said, “Sholay offers a model lesson on how sound can be used to signify the terror a character evokes. Sholay is also exemplary in its use of soundmatching to jump cut to a different scene and time, without breaking the continuity of the narrative, yet, intensifying the drama.”
|Original Motion Picture Soundtrack|
|1.||“Title Music (Sholay)”||–||02:46|
|2.||“Yeh Dosti”||Kishore Kumar and Manna Dey||05:21|
|3.||“Haa Jab Tak Hai Jaan”||Lata Mangeshkar||05:26|
|4.||“Koi Haseena”||Kishore Kumar and Hema Malini||04:00|
|5.||“Holi Ke Din”||Kishore Kumar and Lata Mangeshkar||05:42|
|6.||“Mehbooba Mehbooba”||R. D. Burman||03:54|
|7.||“Yeh Dosti” (sad version)||Kishore Kumar||01:49|
|Bonus tracks — Released later|
|No.||Title||Singers / Speakers|
|8.||“Ke Chand Sa Koi Chehra” (Qawwali)||Kishore Kumar, Manna Dey, Bhupinder Singh, Anand Bakshi|
|9.||“Veeru Ki Sagai” (dialogues)||Hema Malini, Dharmendra, Amitabh Bachchan|
|10.||“Gabbar Singh” (dialogues)||Amjad Khan, Sanjeev Kumar, Dharmendra|
Sholay was released on 15 August 1975, Indian Independence Day, in Mumbai. Due to lacklustre reviews and a lack of effective visual marketing tools, it saw poor financial returns in its first two weeks. From the third week, however, viewership picked up owing to positive word of mouth. During the initial slow period, the director and writer considered re-shooting some scenes so that Amitabh Bachchan’s character would not die. When business picked up, they abandoned this idea. After being helped additionally by a soundtrack release containing dialogue snippets, Sholay soon became an “overnight sensation”. The film was then released in other distribution zones such as Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, and Hyderabad on 11 October 1975. It became the highest grossing Bollywood film of 1975, and film ranking website Box Office India has given the film a verdict of “All Time Blockbuster”.
Sholay went on to earn a still-standing record of 60 golden jubilees across India, and was the first film in India to celebrate a silver jubilee at over 100 theatres. It was shown continuously at Mumbai’s Minerva theatre for over five years. Sholay was the Indian film with the longest theatrical run until Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (1995) broke its record of 286 weeks in 2001.
Exact figures are not available on the budget and box office earnings of Sholay, but film trade websites provide estimates of its success. According to Box Office India, Sholay earned about ₹150 million nett gross (valued at about US$16,778,000 in 1975) in India during its first run, which was many times its ₹30 million (valued at about US$3,355,000 in 1975) budget. Those earnings were a record that remained unbroken for nineteen years, which is also the longest amount of time that a film has held the record. Its original gross was increased further with re-releases during the late 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s. It is often cited that after adjusting the figures for inflation, Sholay is one of the highest grossing films in the history of Indian cinema, although such figures are not known with certainty. In 2012, Box Office India gave ₹1.63 billion (US$25 million) as Sholay’s adjusted net gross, whereas Times of India, in a 2009 report of business of Indian films, reported over ₹3 billion (US$47 million) as the adjusted gross.
Sholay was nominated for nine Filmfare Awards, but the only winner was M. S. Shinde, who won the award for Best Editing. The film also won three awards at the 1976 Bengal Film Journalists’ Association Awards (Hindi section): “Best Actor in Supporting Role” for Amjad Khan, “Best Cinematographer (Colour)” for Dwarka Divecha, and “Best Art Director” for Ram Yedekar. Sholay received a special award at the 50th Filmfare Awards in 2005: Best Film of 50 Years.
Filmmaker Ketan Mehta’s company Maya Digital was responsible for converting Sholay into the 3D format. Mehta was approached by G. P. Sippy’s grandson, Sasha Sippy, about the project in 2010. In March 2012, Shaan Uttam Singh, the grandson of producer G. P. Sippy, said that he would sponsor a conversion of the film to 3D, and release it in late 2012; this was later postponed to late 2013, and eventually finalised for 3 January 2014. It took ₹250 million (US$3.9 million) to convert Sholay to 3D.
Under the leadership of computer animator Frank Foster, 350 people worked to convert the film into the digital 3D format, for which every scene had to be individually restored, colour-corrected and re-composited in 3D to match the depth. New set-pieces, particularly those suited to the new format were also included, such as digital logs which scatter in the direction of the camera during the first half of the film when the train collides with them, the gunshot scene which frees Jai and Veeru from their handcuffs, and panoramic views of Gabbar’s hideout in the caves.
The theatrical trailer and release date were unveiled by the original script-writers Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar. The two original leads, Bachchan and Dharmendra, were also involved in promoting the re-release. The film was released in 1,000 screens in India, and additional screens overseas. It earned approximately ₹100 million (US$1.6 million) during its re-release, not enough to recover its conversion cost.
Sholay has received many “Best Film” honours. It was declared the “Film of the Millennium” by BBC India in 1999. It topped the British Film Institute‘s “Top 10 Indian Films” of all time poll of 2002, and was voted the greatest Indian movie in a Sky Digital poll of one million British Indians in 2004. It was also included in Time Magazine‘s “Best of Bollywood” list in 2010, and in CNN-IBN‘s list of the “100 greatest Indian films of all time” in 2013.
Sholay inspired many films and pastiches, and spawned a subgenre of films, the “Curry Western”, which is a play on the term Spaghetti Western. It was an early and most definitive masala film, and a trend-setter for “multi-star” films. The film was a watershed for Bollywood’s scriptwriters, who were not paid well before Sholay; after the film’s success, script writing became a more respected profession.
Certain scenes and dialogues from the film earned iconic status in India, such as “Kitne aadmi the” (How many men were there?), “Jo dar gaya, samjho mar gaya” (One who is scared is dead), and “Bahut yaarana laagta hai” (Looks like you two are very close) – all dialogues of Gabbar Singh. These and other popular dialogues entered the people’s daily vernacular. Characters and dialogues from the film continue to be referred to and parodied in popular culture. Gabbar Singh, the sadistic villain, ushered in an era in Hindi films characterised by “seemingly omnipotent oppressors as villains”, who play the pivotal role in setting up the context of the story, such as Shakal (played by Kulbhushan Kharbanda) of Shaan (1980), Mogambo (Amrish Puri) of Mr. India (1987) and Bhujang (Amrish Puri) of Tridev (1989).Filmfare, in 2013, named Gabbar Singh the most iconic villain in the history of Indian cinema, and four actors were included in its 2010 list of “80 Iconic Performances” for their work in this film.
The film is often credited with making Amitabh Bachchan a “superstar”, two years after he became a star with Zanjeer (1973). Some of the supporting actors remained etched in public memory as the characters they played in Sholay; for example, Mac Mohan continued to be referred to as “Sambha”, even though his character had just one line. Major and minor characters continue to be used in commercials, promos, films and sitcoms. Amjad Khan acted in many villainous roles later in his career. He also played Gabbar Singh again in the 1991 spoof Ramgarh Ke Sholay, and reprised the role in commercials. The British Film Institute in 2002 wrote that fear of Gabbar Singh “is still invoked by mothers to put their children to sleep”. The 2012 film Gabbar Singh, named after the character, became the highest grossing Telugu film up to that point. Comedian Jagdeep, who played Soorma Bhopali in the film, attempted to use his Sholay success to create a spinoff. He directed and played the lead role in the 1988 film Soorma Bhopali, in which Dharmendra and Bachchan had cameos.
In 2004, Sholay was digitally remastered and shown again to packed theatres in India, including Mumbai’s Minerva, where it had run successfully 29 years earlier. An attempt to remake Sholay, Ram Gopal Varma‘s film Aag (2007), starring Amitabh Bachchan as the villain, was a commercial and critical disaster. Because of television and home media, Sholay is widely available and still popular. Twenty years after its release, Sholay was first shown on the Indian DD National television channel, where it drew the highest ratings ever for an Indian film broadcast. Video game producer Mobile2win released the “Sholay Ramgarh Express” game for mobile phones in 2004, along with other Sholay themed content such as wallpapers, video clips, and ringtones.
Sholay has been the subject of two books and many articles. Wimal Dissanayake and Malti Sahai’s Sholay, A Cultural Reading (1992) attempts a comprehensive scholarly study that sets the film within the broader history of popular cinema in India. Anupama Chopra‘s Sholay: The Making of a Classic (2000) provides an inside look at the film’s production based on interviews with the director, stars, and crew members.
Sholay has been labelled by Chopra as the gold standard in Indian cinema, and a reference point for audiences and trade analysts. Over the years, the film has reached a mythic stature in popular culture, and has been called the greatest Hindi film of all time. It belongs to only a small collection of films, including Kismet (1943), Mother India (1957), Mughal-e-Azam (1960) and Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (1994), which are repeatedly watched throughout India, and are viewed as definitive Hindi films with cultural significance. The lasting effect of Sholay on Indian cinema was summarised by Anupama Chopra, when in 2004 she called it “no longer just a film, [but] an event”. In the 2000 book Sholay: The Making of a Classic, the noted director Shekhar Kapur stated “there has never been a more defining film on the Indian screen. Indian film history can be divided into Sholay BC and Sholay AD”. The film was jointly released in Pakistan by Geo films and Mandviwalla Entertainment on 17 April 2015, almost 40 years after its theatrical release. The film’s premiere in the country was held in Karachi.